Article Retraction or Correction Policy
A published article can be retracted in the following situations-
- There is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either because of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
- The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).
- If it constitutes plagiarism.
- If it reports unethical research.
An expression of concern is issued in the following situations-
- Inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors.
- There is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case.
- They believe that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
- An investigation is underway but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time.
A correction is issued in the following situations-
- Small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error).
- Author/contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).
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